# Metal Weight Calculator

Metal Weight Calculator is a simple calculator that calculates the weight of different metals. This calculator is useful to many design businesses related to the metal industry.

## Metal Weight Calculator Working

- Select the metal type.
- Select the shape of metal. (E.g. flat bar, sheet plate, ring, round bar, square, hexagon bar, round tubing, square tubing etc.)
- Enter a number of pieces.
- Enter dimensions. (diameter and length)
- Click on the Calculate button.
- Formula to calculate the weight of a metal varies according to metal shape, dimensions of metal piece and number of pieces.
- After clicking on the Calculate button, the weight of metal is calculated immediately.

**Metal Weight Calculator Tool**

This is a very handy calculator and you can customize it as per metal type, metal shape, and the number of pieces. You can choose among different types of metals like Carbon Steel, Aluminum, Zinc, Copper, Brass, Tungsten, etc.

Steel is a metal which is an allotropic form of Iron with some alloy elements especially carbon and other materials. Iron is extracted from the Iron ore with the help of various methods and steel is obtained after adding some alloy such as carbon into the extracted Iron which will provide high tensile strength to it. Steel is used in many industries and has many applications due to its low cost and higher strength properties.

**Iron & Iron ore**

Iron is commonly found deep inside the earth’s crust but it is not pure. There are a lot of impurities in it. It is in the form of ore such as iron oxide also called hematite ore, magnetite ore, etc. Iron is a metal that is extracted by melting the iron ore with the help of coal into the blast furnace. The molten iron is then cast into the iron products. The pure Iron is very soft and ductile in nature due to the less compact crystal structure of iron. But it can be made brittle by adding some alloy materials to it.

**Steel production**

Steel is an allotropic form of iron. Due to adding carbon content, iron becomes strong and steel is made. Steel is produced by heating the iron ore in a blast furnace at a very high temperature. This process is called a smelting process. In this process, an iron ore gets converted into a molten state but it still contains impurities. So, in order to remove those impurities limestone is added while smelting. Limestone converts the unwanted impurities into a waste slag which can be removed easily and we can get molten iron. In smelting, the iron oxide has a lot of oxygen content in it. Carbon is added to reduce the iron oxide and releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Due to this, the iron becomes an Iron-carbon alloy which is called as steel. Depending upon the carbon content, steel is classified into various types –

**There are basically four types of steel**

a) Carbon Steel

b) Alloy Steel

c) Stainless Steel

d) Tool Steel

These four types differ in many aspects such as its physical properties, its chemical composition, corrosion resistance, environment properties etc. Depending upon the application where will be used, one has to select the appropriate material for steel.

There are many grades of steel which are classified according to their properties. There is two major types of numbering systems used for differentiating the grades, the first is the American Iron & Steel Institute (AISI), and the second is the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). In both the standards, there is four number which represents the type of steel. 1st letter indicates the designation for carbon steel and it is always represented by (1) for eg – 1XXX, AISI 1020. in case of alloy steel, the first letter would indicate from 2-9 depending upon which alloy material has been used, for eg – 2XXX for nickel, 3XXX for nickel-chromium steel, 5XXX for chromium steel etc. The 2nd digit of the grade numbering indicates the percentage of that alloy in steel, for eg – 1 for 1%, 2 for 2%. The 3rd and 4th digit of the numbering series indicates the carbon concentration in the steel in percentage. For eg – 20 means 0.20 percentage carbon content, 40 means 0.40 percentage of carbon.

These standards are used to easily describe the exact material and its chemical and physical composition. For eg – 1) AISI1020 is plain low carbon steel which is also known as mild steel which has 0.20% of carbon content. 2) AISI4340 is molybdenum steel containing about 3% of molybdenum and 0.40% of carbon content.

**Based on the carbon content in steel they are classified into three types –**

**Low carbon steel**– it is also called as mild steel with a carbon content of 0.1% to 0.3% weight with other alloying material such as manganese 0.4 %. Some examples of low carbon steel are AISI1018, AISI1020, etc.**Medium carbon steel**– these have carbon content of 0.2-0.4% weight. They have better tensile strength as compared to low carbon steel. Some examples of medium carbon steel are AISI1045, AISI1137, AISI1144, etc.**High carbon steel**– these are heat-treated, annealed and have a high carbon content at around 0.5% – 0.8% weight. Some examples of high carbon steel are AISI1060, AISI1070, AISI1080 etc

Depending upon the carbon content in the steel, there different grades of steel with different properties. More the carbon content, the more is the tensile strength. Some high strength steels undergo different processes such as annealing, quenching, tempering, hardening, etc. These make the steel strong enough to be used in heavy-duty applications such as infrastructure, buildings, ships, heavy-duty machinery etc.

From the above context, we have understood about steel and its manufacturing process with the properties of steel. Now we will know about the weight of different materials of steel including mild steel, structural steel, high strength steel etc which are most commonly used in the industry. For any Engineering industry, the overall weight of the machine is an important factor in which an Engineer looks upon it. To choose an appropriate material with proper weight, we need to understand how the weight varies by different materials of different shapes.

**Metal weight according to the shape of an object**

The basic formula for calculating the weight is:

Density (kg/m^{3}) = mass (kg) / volume (m^{3})

Mass = density x volume

M = p x V

For a specific material, density is always the same but the volume would change depending upon the shape of the object.

The most commonly used material for industrial purposes is Mild Steel. This material is used in light duty engineering purposes. So we will understand the weight for Mild Steel material for the following type of shapes which are used in industry and are easily available in the market.

**1) Round Bar**

Volume of a round bar = Cross sectional area x length of the bar

V = A x L

Let us consider a round bar of length 1m with a diameter of 20mm = 0.020m

So, the radius = 0.020/2 = 0.010m

Cross sectional area of round bar = A = πr^{2} = π x (0.010^{2}) = 0.0003142m^{2}

Density of mild steel = 7900 kg/m^{3}

Therefore, the mass of round bar = density x cross-sectional area x length of rod

= 7900 x 0.0003142 x 1 = 2.4821 kg

similarly, we can calculate the mass of the round bar of different dimensions.

Volume of a rectangular bar = length x breadth x height

V = L x B x H

Let us consider a rectangular bar of length 1m, breadth 20mm = 0.020m and height 10mm = 0.010m

Hence, Volume = L x B x H = 1 x 0.020 x 0.010 = 0.0002m^{3}

So, mass of rectangular bar = density x volume = 7900 x 0.0002 = 1.58 kg

Similarly, we can calculate the mass of a rectangular bar of different dimensions.

**3) Square Bar**

Volume of square bar = cross sectional area x length

= (side)^{2} x length

Let us consider a rectangular bar of length 1m, side length 20mm = 0.020m

Hence, Volume = (0.020)^{2} x 0.0004 m^{3}

So, the mass of square bar = density x volume = 7900 x 0.0004 = 3.16 kg

Similarly, we can calculate the mass of a square bar of different dimensions.

The same formula will be applied here to calculate.

Volume = cross sectional area x Length

To calculate the cross sectional area of hexagonal rod , we first need to know the side length of the hexagonal rod.

Area= (3√(3 ))/2 S^{2}

Where S = side length of the hexagonal rod.

Let us consider a 1 m long hexagonal rod of side length, S = 10 mm = 0.010m

So, volume of the hexagonal rod = V = (3√(3 ))/2 x (0.010)^{2} x 1=0.0002598 m^{3}

Hence, mass of hexagonal rod = density x volume = 7900 x 0.0002598 = 2.0524 kg.

By using this formula we can calculate the mass of hexagonal rod of different dimensions.

**5) Triangular Rod**

For calculating the area of a triangular bar you should know the lengths of all three sides of edge

Let a,b,c be the lengths of the sides of a triangle.

The area is given by A= √(s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c) )

Where, s = (a+b+c)/2

Let us consider a 1m long triangular bar with side egde length a = 40mm, b = 20mm, c= 30mm

So, s = (40+20+30)/2 = 45 mm

Cross sectional area of triangular bar becomes,

A = √(45(45-40)(45-20)(45-30) ) = 290.47mm^{2 }= 0.0002905 m^{2}

Hence volume of the triangular bar = Area x length = 0.0002905 x 1 = 0.0002905 m^{3}

Therefore, mass of the triangular bar = density x volume = 7900 x 0.0002905 =2.295 kg.

By using these formula we can calculate the mass of triangular bar of different dimensions.

**6) Round Pipe**

The calculations are similar to the round bar. The only difference is that this is a hollow round pipe and round bar is not hollow.

This pipe is better than the round bar because it provides more strength and has less weigh as compared to the round bar.

To calculate the mass, we must know the outer diameter and the inner diameter or thickness of the hollow round pipe.

Volume of the round = Sectional area x length

V= π ( R^{2} – r^{2} ) x L

Let us consider a 1m long round pipe of outer diameter, D = 60 mm and inner diameter, d = 50 mm. so the outer radius becomes, R = D/2 = 60/2 = 30 mm= 0.030 m and inner radius, r = d/2 = 50/2 = 25 mm = 0.025 m

Hence the volume, V = π (0.030^{2}– 0.025^{2} ) x 1 =0.0008639 m^{3}

Therefore, mass of round pipe = density x volume = 7900 x 0.0008639 = 6.8248 kg

In this way, you can calculate the mass of any round pipe which is hollow.

**7) Square Pipe**

It is similar to the round pipe.

Volume of the square pipe = cross sectional area x Length

V= A x L = (a^{2}_{1 } – a^{2}_{2})x L

Where a_{1 }is outer edge width and a_{2} is inner edge width

Let us consider a 1m long square pipe of outer width 20 mm = 0.020 m and inner width 16 mm = 0.016 m

So, Volume of the square pipe = (0.0202^{2} – 0.0162^{2}) x 1 = 0.000144 m^{3}

Hence, mass of the square pipe = density x volume = 7900 x 0.000144 = 1.1376 kg

By using this formula we can calculate the mass of square pipe of different dimensions.

**8) Triangular Pipe**

For calculating the area of a triangular pipe you should know the lengths of all three sides of both outer edge and inner edge.

Let a,b,c be the lengths of the sides of a outer edge triangle and d, e, f be the length of the sides of inner edge triangle

The area is given by A = √(s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c))

Where, s = (a+b+c)/2

Let us consider a 1m long triangular pipe with side edge length a = 40mm, b = 20mm, c= 30mm

So, s = (40+20+30)/2 = 45 mm

A_{1}= √(45(45-40) (45-20) (45-30)) = 290.47 mm^{2 }= 0.0002905 m^{2}

Let inner edge sides d = 35 , e = 15 , f = 25

A_{2}= √(37.5(37.5-35) (37.5-15) (37.5-25)) = 162.38 mm^{2} = 0.0001624 m^{2}

Cross sectional area of triangular pipe becomes,

A = A_{1 }– A_{2} = 0.0002905 – 0.0001624 =0.000128 m^{2}

Hence volume of the triangular pipe = Area x length = 0.000128 x 1 = 0.000128 m^{3}

Therefore, mass of the triangular pipe = density x volume =7900 x 0.000128=1.0112 kg.

By using this formula we can calculate the mass of triangular pipe of different dimensions.

Volume of the rectangular pipe = cross sectional area x Length

V = A × L = ( ( X_{1 } × Y_{1 } ) – ( x_{2} × y_{2 } ) ) × L

Where X_{1 }is outer edge width, Y_{1} is outer edge height and x_{2} is inner edge width, y_{2 }is inner edge height.

Let us consider a 1m long rectangular pipe of outer edge width 30mm = 0.030m, outer edge height = 25 mm = 0.025 m and inner edge width 20 mm = 0.020 m , inner edge height = 15 mm = 0.015 m.

So, Volume of the rectangular pipe = [ (0.030 × 0.020 ) – ( 0.025 × 0.015 ) ] × 1 = 0.000225 m^{3}

Hence, mass of the rectangular pipe = density × volume = 7900 × 0.000225 = 1.7775 kg

By using this formula we can calculate the mass of rectangular pipe of different dimensions.

**10) Flat Plate**

Volume of a flat plate = length × breadth × thickness

V = L × B × t

Let us consider a flat plate of length 500 mm = 0.5 m , breadth 200 mm = 0.200 m and thickness 2 mm = 0.002 m

Hence, Volume of a flat plate = L × B × t = 0.5 × 0.200 × 0.002 = 0.0002 m3

So, mass of flat plate = density × volume = 7900 × 0.0002 = 1.58 kg

Similarly, we can calculate the mass of rectangular bar of different dimensions.

**11) Equal length L section beam**

Here, we will have to know the outer and inner edge dimensions.

Volume of the L section = cross sectional area × Length

V= A x L = (( X_{1} × Y_{1} ) – (x_{2} × y_{2} )) × L

Where X_{1 }is outer edge width, Y_{1} is outer edge height and x_{2} is inner edge width, y_{2 }is inner edge height.

Let us consider a 1 m long L section of outer edge width 30mm = 0.030m, outer edge height = 30 mm = 0.030 m and inner edge width 25 mm = 0.025 m , inner edge height = 25 mm = 0.025 m.

So, Volume of the L section = [ (0.030 × 0.030) – (0.025 × 0.025) ] × 1 = 0.000275 m^{3}

Hence, mass of the L section = density × volume = 7900 × 0.000275 = 2.1725 kg

By using this formula we can calculate the mass of equal length L – section beam of different dimensions.

**12) Unequal length L section beam **

Here, we will have to know the outer and inner edge dimensions.

Volume of the unequal L section = cross sectional area x Length

Where X_{1 }is outer edge width, Y_{1} is outer edge height and x_{2} is inner edge width, y_{2 }is inner edge height.

Let us consider a 1 m long unequal L section of outer edge width 60 mm = 0.060 m, outer edge height = 30 mm = 0.030 m and inner edge width 55 mm = 0.055 m , inner edge height = 25 mm = 0.025 m.

So, Volume of the L section = [ ( 0.060 × 0.030 ) – ( 0.055 × 0.025 ) ] × 1 = 0.000425 m^{3}

Hence, mass of the L section = density × volume = 7900 × 0.000425 = 3.3575 kg

In this way we can calculate the weight of unequal length L – section beam

**13) U section beam**

We can calculate the weight of this U – section in the same way as we calculated for L section

Here, we will have to know the outer and inner edge dimensions.

Volume of the U section = cross sectional area × Length

V = A × L = (( X_{1} × Y_{1} ) – ( x_{2} × y_{2} )) × L

Where X_{1 }is outer edge width, Y_{1} is outer edge height and x_{2} is inner edge width, y_{2 }is inner edge height.

Let us consider a 1 m long U section of outer edge width 30mm = 0.030m, outer edge height = 20 mm = 0.020 m and inner edge width 20 mm = 0.020 m, inner edge height = 15 mm = 0.015 m.

So, Volume of the U section = [ ( 0.030 × 0.020 ) – ( 0.020 × 0.015 ) ] x 1 = 0.0003 m^{3}

Hence, mass of the U section = density × volume = 7900 × 0.0003 = 2.37 kg

By using this formula we can calculate the mass of u section beam of different dimensions.

**14) I section beam**

We can calculate the weight of this I – section in the same way as we calculated for U – section

Here, we will have to know the outer and inner edge dimensions.

Volume of the I – section = cross sectional area × Length

V = A × L = (( X_{1} × Y_{1} ) – 2 × ( x_{2} × y_{2} )) × L

Where X_{1 }is outer edge width, Y_{1} is outer edge height and x_{2} is inner edge width, y_{2 }is inner edge height.

Let us consider a 1 m long I – section of outer edge width 60mm = 0.060m, outer edge height = 80 mm = 0.080 m and inner edge width 25 mm = 0.025 m , inner edge height = 40 mm = 0.040 m.

So, Volume of the I section = [ (0.060 × 0.080) – 2 × (0.025 × 0.040) ] × 1 = 0.0028 m^{3}

Hence, mass of the I section = density × volume = 7900 × 0.0028 = 22.12 kg

In this way we can calculate the mass of an I section with different dimensions.

**15) T section beam**

We can calculate the weight of this T – section in the same way as we calculated for I – section

Here, we will have to know the outer and inner edge dimensions.

Volume of the T – section = cross sectional area × Length

Where X_{1 }is outer edge width, Y_{1} is outer edge height and x_{2} is inner edge width, y_{2 }is inner edge height.

Let us consider a 1 m long T – section of outer edge width 80 mm = 0.080 m, outer edge height = 80 mm = 0.080 m and inner edge width 35 mm = 0.035 m , inner edge height = 70 mm = 0.070 m.

So, Volume of the T -section = [ ( 0.080 × 0.080 ) – 2 × ( 0.035 x 0.070 ) ] × 1 = 0.0015 m^{3} Hence, mass of the T section = density × volume = 7900 × 0.0015 = 11.85 kg

In this way we can calculate the mass of an T section with different dimensions.

**16) Hexagonal Pipe**

The same formula will be applied here to calculate.

Volume = cross sectional area × Length

To calculate the cross sectional area of hexagonal pipe. we first need to know the side length of both inner and outer edge of the hexagonal pipe.

Where, S = side length of outer edge of the hexagonal pipe.

s = side length of inner edge of the hexagonal pipe.

Let us consider a 1 m long hexagonal pipe of side length at outer edge, S = 10 mm = 0.010m and side length at inner edge, s = 8 mm = 0.008m

cross sectional Area = (3√(3 )) / 2 × ( S^{2 }– s^{2} )

So, volume of the hexagonal rod = (3√(3 ))/2 × ( 0.010^{2} – 0.008^{2} ) × 1 = 0.0000935 m^{3}

Hence, mass of hexagonal rod = density × volume = 7900 × 0.0000935 = 0.7389 kg.

By using this formula we can calculate the mass of hexagonal pipe of different dimensions.

These were examples of how to calculate the weight of metal with different size and shape. These are very common metal objects which are available in the market with different sizes and with different grades of metal. These are very useful in the industrial applications where the weight of a body is of much concern. We can calculate the mass of these shapes with different material and different grades also. There are many shapes available in the market including these shapes. Those are very complicated shapes so we have explained only a few basic and standard shapes which are available in market and you can buy easily and those which are most widely used on the industrial applications such as automotive, civil, mechanical, etc. as we have understood all the basic shapes of the objects, now we can compare many materials on a type of shape and we can decide which material grade should we use for our application. Still, we have compared a few materials with different properties and have selected a better material.

**SELECTION OF A PROPER GRADE MATERIAL**

Selection of proper material is mainly the bigger factor in a weight reduction of any machine or a structure made up of metal. As there are different materials with different grades and different properties, it is a bit difficult to understand which material should be appropriate for the application. Let us understand how to compare two similar materials with different grades.

Let’s take an example of two grades of steel – AISI1020 and AISI5130

Before comparing, we should know about these materials. Here, AISI1020 is low carbon steel also called as mild steel with carbon composition of 0.20%. AISI5130 is a chromium alloy steel containing 1% of chromium and approximately 0.30% carbon content in it and can also be referred to as medium carbon steel. Since the chromium alloy steel has more carbon content, it has more strength as compared to mild steel because if the carbon content is more in steel, it will be stronger and has better strength as compared to steel having low carbon content.

- Now let us check the weight of both the material to select the suitable material.

Let us consider a 1m long rectangular bar with breadth 50 mm = 0.050 m and height 20 mm = 0.020m.

We will check weight for both the materials of steel. But to calculate the mass, we should know the density of both the materials. Density of mild steel AISI1020 is 7900 kg/m^{3} whereas density of chromium alloy steel AISI5130 is 7800 kg/m^{3}.

1) Mass of AISI1020 rectangular bar

Mass of rectangular bar = density of AISI1020 x volume of rectangular bar

Here, Volume of rectangular bar = V = L x B x H = 1 x 0.050 x 0.020 = 0.001 m^{3}

Hence, mass of rectangular bar = 7900 x 0.001 = 7.9 kg

Mass of rectangular bar made up of AISI1020 is 7.9 kg

2) Mass of AISI5130 rectangular bar

Mass of rectangular bar = density of AISI5130 x volume of rectangular bar

Here, Volume of rectangular bar = V = L x B x H = 1 x 0.050 x 0.020 = 0.001 m^{3}

Hence, mass of rectangular bar = 7800 x 0.001 = 7.8 kg

Mass of rectangular bar made up of AISI5130 is 7.8 kg

So from the above calculations, it is clear that AISI5130 has less weight than AISI1020. Also, chromium alloy steel has more strength than mild steel. Hence, AISI5130 chromium alloy steel is a better material due to its low weight and more strength.

- Lets take another example to understand

Lets take two different materials say mild steel AISI1020 and aluminium grade 6063 and compare the weight of two different materials having different grades.

Before comparing, we should know about these materials. Here, AISI1020 is a low carbon steel also called as mild steel with carbon composition of 0.20%. aluminium 6063 is an aluminium alloy with magnesium and silicon as the alloying material. Due to its alloy nature it has better strength and it is corrosion resistance. Now let us check the weight of both the material to select the suitable material.

Let us consider a 1m long flat plate with breadth 500 mm = 0.500m and thickness 2 mm = 0.002m.

We will check weight for both steel and aluminium. But to calculate the mass, we should know the density of both the materials. Density of mild steel AISI1020 is 7900 kg/m^{3} whereas density of aluminium alloy steel 6063 is 2700 kg/m^{3}.

1) Mass of AISI1020 flat plate

Mass of a flat plate = density of AISI1020 x volume of flat plate

Here, Volume of flat plate = V = L x B x t = 1 x 0.500 x 0.002 = 0.001 m^{3}

Hence, mass of flat plate = 7900 x 0.001 = 7.9 kg

Mass of flat plate made up of AISI1020 is 7.9 kg

2) Mass of aluminium alloy 6063 flat plate

Mass of flat plate = density of aluminium 6063 x volume of flat plate

Here, Volume of flat plate = V = L x B x t = 1 x 0.500 x 0.002 = 0.001 m^{3}

Hence, mass of a flat plate = 2700 x 0.001 = 2.7 kg

Mass of flat plate made up of aluminium alloy 6063 is 2.7 kg

So from the above calculations it is clear that aluminium alloy 6063 has less weight than mild steel AISI1020. Hence, aluminium alloy 6063 is a better material due to its low weight. But it can only be used where weight is the only main factor. If the strength is more concerned then mild steel can give more strength as compared to aluminium alloy 6063.

- Now let us compare two different grades of aluminium

Lets take two different materials say aluminium 2011 and aluminium grade 6063 and compare the weight of two different materials having different grades.

Before comparing, we should know about these materials. Here, aluminium 2011 is an aluminium alloy with copper as its alloying material and aluminium 6063 is an aluminium alloy with magnesium and silicon as the alloying material. Due to their alloy nature, both has better strength and they are corrosion resistance. Now let us check the weight of both the material to select the suitable material.

Let us consider a 1m long flat plate with breadth 500 mm = 0.500m and thickness 2 mm = 0.002m.

We will check weight for both grades of aluminium. But to calculate the mass, we should know the density of both the materials. Density of aluminium alloy 2011 is 2830 kg/m^{3} whereas density of aluminium alloy steel 6063 is 2700 kg/m^{3}.

1) Mass of aluminium alloy 2011 flat plate

Mass of a flat plate = density of aluminium alloy 2011 x volume of flat plate

Here, Volume of flat plate = V = L x B x t = 1 x 0.500 x 0.002 = 0.001 m^{3}

Hence, mass of flat plate = 2830 x 0.001 = 2.830 kg

Mass of flat plate made up of aluminium copper alloy 2011 is 2.830 kg

2) Mass of aluminium alloy 6063 flat plate

Mass of flat plate = density of aluminium 6063 x volume of flat plate

Here, Volume of flat plate = V = L x B x t = 1 x 0.500 x 0.002 = 0.001 m^{3}

Hence, mass of a flat plate = 2700 x 0.001 = 2.7 kg .

Mass of flat plate made up of aluminium alloy 6063 is 2.7 kg.

So from the above calculations it is clear that aluminium alloy 6063 has less weight than aluminium alloy 2011. Hence, aluminium alloy 6063 is a better material due to its low weight. Also, If the strength is more concerned then it can give more strength as compared to aluminium alloy 2011.

**DIFFERENT GRADES OF METALS**

Let’s check the different materials of different metals such as steel, aluminium, copper etc

Standards are written in SAE or AISI grades.

### STEEL

According to these SAE and AISI grades, we can know the type of metal and its chemical composition.

**CARBON STEEL**

Carbon steel is a type of steel in which the main alloying element is carbon. The strength of carbon steel depends upon the percentage of carbon in it. It varies in every material from 0.2 % to 2.2 %. More the carbon content, more will be the strength of steel. There are many types of carbon steel.

Depending upon the alloying element, carbon steel is classified into the following types –

- 1XXX numbered steel are carbon steel. For eg – 1010, 1015, 1018, 1020, 1035, 1045 etc
- 2XXX numbered steel are nickel steel
- 3XXX numbered steel are Nickel-chromium steels
- 4XXX numbered steel are Molybdenum steels. For eg – 4130, 4340 etc
- 5XXX numbered steel are Chromium steels
- 6XXX numbered steel are Chromium-vanadium steels
- 7XXX numbered steel are Tungsten steels
- 8XXX numbered steel are Nickel-chromium-molybdenum steels
- 9XXX numbered steel are Silicon-manganese steels

The first number indicates the type of alloying material which has been used in the steel.

**STAINLESS STEEL**

Stainless steel has more chromium content that forms a fine layer on the steel for preventing corrosion and staining. Stainless Steel has lower thermal conductivity whereas Carbon steel has a higher carbon content, which gives the steel a low melting point and durability, and it has better heat distribution.

Depending upon the alloying element, stainless steel is classified into the following types –

- 100 SERIES are also called as austenitic general purpose stainless steel
- 200 SERIES are also called as austenitic chromium-nickel-manganese alloys
- 300 SERIES are also called as austenitic chromium-nickel alloys
- 400 SERIES are also called as ferritic and martensitic chromium alloys
- 500 SERIES are also called as heat-resisting chromium alloys
- 600 SERIES are also called as proprietary alloys
- 900 SERIES are also called as austentic chromium-molybdenum alloys

The number series indicates the type of alloying material which has been used in the steel.

### ALUMINIUM

Aluminium is most abundant material which is used in industries. Aluminium is commonly alloyed with copper, zinc, magnesium, silicon, manganese and lithium. In some aluminium alloys there is a small additions of chromium, titanium, lead and nickel.

**ALUMINIUM ALLOYS**

1. 1XXX numbered aluminium are also called as Plain unalloyed aluminium ( pure aluminium )

2. 2XXX numbered aluminium are also called as copper aluminium alloy

3. 3XXX numbered aluminium are also called as manganese aluminium alloy

4. 4XXX numbered aluminium are also called as silicon aluminium alloy

5. 5XXX numbered aluminium are also called as magnesium aluminium alloy

6. 6XXX numbered aluminium are also called as magnesium + silicon aluminium alloy

7. 7XXX numbered aluminium are also called as zinc aluminium alloy

8. 8XXX numbered aluminium are also called as lithium aluminium alloy

Aluminium has a density around one third that of steel or copper which makes it one of the lightest of all the available metals. The high strength to weight ratio makes it an important structural material and can withstand increased loads. This also helps in saving of fuel for transport industries.

Aluminium doesn’t have much tensile strength but after the addition of some alloying materials such as manganese, magnesium, silicon, copper etc its strength is increased and subsequently it can withstand more loads with aluminium alloy.